Jim Lindberg (lead vocals), Fletcher Dragge (guitar), Byron McMackin (drums), and Jason Thirsk (bass) formed Pennywise in 1988. All of the members attended the same high school in Hermosa Beach, California, where they were involved with both punk rock and surfing. Using California hardcore as a foundation, the group incorporated funk-metal and skatepunk into its sound, developing something that functioned as edgy, post-punk frat rock, with heavy, propulsive rhythms and positive, optimistic lyrics. Pennywise developed a dedicated following among post-hardcore punk audiences, but internal problems, culminating in the 1996 suicide of Thirsk, prevented the band from rising above cult status. Pennywise nevertheless persisted through the years, releasing their tenth album, All or Nothing (featuring new vocalist Zoli Teglas following Lindberg's amicable departure), in 2012. ~ Stephen Thomas Erlewine
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